Nature printing was perfected in Vienna and London in the mid 19th century. In this process a dried, flattened plant was pressed between two lead plates, leaving an impression which in turn was transferred by electrotype to a copper plate. This in turn was reverse cast to make an intaglio plate for printing each plant image on paper. Nature printing became obsolete in the early 20th Century when x-ray photography provided a more efficient means of achieving the same kind of detailed record of plant characteristics such as patterns of leaf veining.
Physiotypia Plantarum Austriacarum is one of the greatest ever nature printed books. The original collection consisted of 530 plates published in Vienna, c. 1855-56 in five folio volumes and a quarto volume. A second edition, published in Prague in 1873, expanded the number of plates to 1,000. In each edition, the plants were printed in sepia ink. The Vienna edition was printed under the supervision of Alois Auer (1813-1869), director of the Imperial Printing House in Vienna, who along with Henry Bradbury in London, produced the finest nature prints. Auer improved upon earlier versions of the technique, which had been in use in published works since the 18th century. Von Ettingshausen, a paleobotanist, saw an application to his research comparing fossil plants to present-day species. His interests are aptly captured in the subtitle of the work: “with particular reference to veining in the surface organs of plants.” His co-author, Alois Pokorny, studied botany and also produced a subsequent nature-printed work of leaves from woody Austrian plants.
Full title: Physiotypia Plantarum Austriacarum Der Naturselbstdruck in seiner Anwendung auf die Gefässpflanzen des Österreichischen, mit besonderer Berucksichtigung der Nervation in den Flächenorganen der Pflanzen. [Physiotypes of Austrian Plants, nature pressing, as applied to the vascular plants of the Austrian imperial state, with particular reference to veining in the surface organs of plants.]
Condition: Generally very good with the usual overall light toning and wear. Some with soft creases, light staining in far outer margins, can be matted out. Some with minor pale scattered foxing.
Blunt, Wilfred, rev. by Stearn, William T. The Art of Botanical Illustration. Woodbridge, Suffolk, England: Antique Collectors Club, 1994. pp. 157-58.
Nissen, Claus. Die Botanische Buchillustration: ihre Geschichte und Bibliographie. Stuttgart:1951-66. 613.
Stafleu, Frans A. and Richard S.Cowan. Taxonomic Literature. Utrecht: 1967. 2nd ed., Utrecht: 1976-1988. 1723.