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View, Italy, Rome, Vue d’optique, Pantheon, Giovanni Paolo Panini, 18th Century (Sold)

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Giovanni Paolo Panini (1691-1765) (after)
The Inside of the Pantheon at Rome – Le Dedans du Pantheon a Rome
Laurie & Whittle, London: May 12, 1794
Hand-colored engraving
10.5 x 16 inches, image
11 x 16.75 inches, platemark
13.5 x 19 inches, overall

18th century interior view of the Pantheon in Rome, a second century Roman temple later consecrated as a Catholic Church, and still standing today, facing the Piazza della Rotonda. The structure is noticed for its great circular room and domed ceiling with a span of 142 feet (43.2 m). During the day, the interior is dramatically lit by a sunbeam pouring through the unglazed oculus (opening) at the center of the dome. As the sun moves, striking patterns of light illuminate the walls and floors of porphyry, granite and yellow marbles. Titled in English and French and numbered upper right, “39.”


This view is in the general format and size of a vue d’optique — a perspective view produced as a hand-colored print generally intended to be viewed through a convex lens. Vues d’optique often were rendered in high-key color and dramatic linear perspective which enhanced the illusion of three-dimensionality when viewed through the lens, making it seem like the viewer was really there. Thus, they served as a form of visual entertainment. The viewing devices were known variously as zograscopes, optiques, optical machines and peepshows. According to the Getty Research Institute, street performers would set up viewing boxes with a series of prints giving a pictorial tour of famous landmarks, dramatic events and foreign lands. Vues d’optique were also purchased by Grand Tour travelers as souvenirs to be viewed at home as a parlor activity. To cater to this broad audience, the prints often had titles and descriptions in two or more languages. Because the images are reversed in viewing devices, the main titles on some vues d’optique are backwards. Vues d’optique were also hung on walls as decoration.

Giovanni Paolo Panini was a highly prolific and versatile Italian painter, architect and stage designer. He was best known for his numerous picturesque views of Rome, many of which focused on the remnants of the city’s classical past, and incorporated figures moving through the spaces or participating in ceremonies or festivals. He worked exclusively in Rome and by the end of his career was the head of a thriving workshop.

Robert Laurie (1755-1836) and James Whittle (1757-1818) were London map, chart and printsellers active from 1794 to 1812 trading variously as Laurie and Whittle or Whittle and Laurie. Laurie began his career as an accomplished mezzotint engraver and exhibited at the Society of Artists from 1770 to 1776. With Whittle, he took over the large map and print business of Robert Sayer. Laurie & Whittle published many atlases and maps and products used for jigsaw puzzles. Robert’s son, Richard Holmes Laurie, succeeded him upon his retirement in 1812, and after Whittle’s death in 1818 carried on the business alone until at least 1840. The firm still exists as Imray, Laurie, Norie and Wilson Ltd., which has long specialized in marine charts.

Full publication information: “The Inside of the Pantheon at Rome. Le Dedans du Pantheon a Rome. G.P. Panini Pinx’t. Published 12th May, 1794 by Laurie & Whittle, 53 Fleet Street, London.”


“Emperor’s Palace in Beijing.” Devices of Wonder. J. Paul Getty Trust. 2001. (30 September 2002).

“Giovanni Paolo Panini.” The Grove Dictionary of Art. New York: Macmillan. 2000. Online at (14 May 2002).

Matthews, Kevin (ed.). “Pantheon.” Great 1994-2002. (14 May 2002).

Maxted, Ian. “The London book trades 1775-1800: a preliminary checklist of members.” Exeter Working Papers in British Book Trade History. 2001. and (20 May 2009).