Dioscuri at the Quirinal, Rome
Architectural Print from Speculum Romanae, 1584
Dioscuri at the Quirinal, engraving
Dioscuri at the Quirinal, engraving
Dioscuri at the Quirinal, engraving

See also these engravings from Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae:

Belvedere Courtyard, Vatican, Rome

Belvedere Courtyard, Vatican

Castel Sant'Angelo, Rome

Castel Sant'Angelo

Circus Maximus, Rome

Circus Maximus

Farnese Palace, Rome

Farnese Palace
Sold

Porta Maggiore, Rome

Porta Maggiore

Antoine Lafréry (1512-1577) (original publisher)
Claude Duchet (died c. 1585) (publisher)
Opus Praxitelis, Opus Fidiae
[Work of Praxiteles, Work of Fidias]

from Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae
Rome: 1584
Engraving, uncolored
14.25 x 19.5 inches, overall
Provenance: James Lamantia, Jr.
$1,750

Engraving depicting the immense statues known as the Dioscuri at the Quirinal in Rome, as these ancient Roman ruins and statuary looked in the mid 16th century prior to being moved and restored in 1588. This print was made by the publisher Antoine Lafréry's nephew and heir Claude Duchet after an earlier engraving originally published by Lafréry as part of Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae, a massive compilation that aspired to document nearly every extant monument in Rome. The University of Chicago has in its collection both the 1546 Lafréry edition of this print and the 1584 version by Duchet. The two versions may be compared on the University's web site (the translation of the inscription below is theirs). Duchet inherited half of Lafréry's plates in 1577 and apparently had this one re-engraved. Apart from the sky, which has been completely redrawn, the differences between them are mostly stylistic -- the outlines in the later version are bolder and the shading less subtle. In the later edition, the inscription lower right has been changed from "Ant. Lafreri" to "Romae. 1584. Claudii Ducheti Formis."

The Dioscuri are two immense statues of horse tamers, variously said to be Castor and Pollux or Alexander and Bucephalus. Standing over five meters high, they are ancient Roman replicas of Greek originals from the 5th century BC. In the latter years of the Roman Empire, they were treated as originals and inscribed with the attributions to the famous Greek sculptors Praxiteles and Phidias shown in this engraving. (It was not unusual for the names of legendary artists to be attached to esteemed works of art centuries later.) At the time that Lafréry published his original engraving, they were on the Quirinal, one of the hills of Rome, at the Baths of Constantine. In 1588, Pope Sixtus V had the statues restored and moved to the Piazza del Quirinale. Since 1818, the statues have been incorporated into what is now known as the Fountain of the Dioscuri in the center of the piazza, which also includes an Egyptian obelisk and an ancient Roman basin.

Antoine Lafréry (also known by the Italian name Antonio Lafreri) was a French printseller and publisher, and possibly also an engraver, who moved to Italy and was active in Rome from around 1540 until his death in 1577. His firm published maps and a wide range of prints: ancient and modern Rome, portraits, ornament and mythological, historical and religious subjects. He also bought and sold drawings, coins and medals. Among Lafréry's publications were two architectural treatises and several sets of ornament prints, including Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae (c. 1540-c.1565). According to the subtitle of Speculum, it had the most accurately drawn representations of nearly all the extant monuments of the City of Rome; in the 1570s, the Lafréry catalogue listed some 500 subjects. Speculum did not have fixed contents; each copy was unique and varied in terms of the number of pages, subjects included, and even the printers and engravers. Moreover, later collectors also added prints to earlier sets. The University of Chicago holds the largest extant collection of Speculum, which may be viewed online on its web site (see References below).

Claude Duchet (also known by the Italian name Claudio Duchetti) was an Italian printseller and publisher. He inherited half of the plates of his uncle, the engraver and publisher Antoine Lafréry, and also commissioned plates from artists such as Perret, Thomassin and Brambilla. Upon his death in about 1585, his firm was operated by his brother-in-law Giacomo Gherardi as "Claudii Ducheti Heirs" until his son Claudio reached the age of majority.

Inscription: HEUS TU QUI PRAETERIS MORARE PAULUM AC INSPICE IN QUIRINALI HI SUNT EQUI MARMOREI MUTILI ATQUE GRANDES ARTE VICTA NATURA PARENS SPIRITUM CUR EPIRIT QUID PRAXITELES ET FIDIAS EFFINXERE ISTOS AEMULAMUR SAT DIXI ABEL VALE SALVE MISCE BIBE DA MI. Romae. 1584. Claudii, Ducheti Formis.

Translation [by University of Chicago]: Hey! You who pass by, stop a while and observe: these are the grand, broken marble horses in the Quirinal. With art conquered, obedient nature snatched away the breath, what Praxiteles and Fidias fashioned; I am quite jealous of these; hail, be well, mix, drink, give me.

Condition: Generally very good with the usual overall light toning and wear. Few soft creases and few printers creases not obtrusive. No margins; cut to ruled border, as is typical with old master prints of this period. On laid paper, watermark letter “M” in a shield.

Provenance: James Lamantia, Jr. (1923 - 2011). At the time of his death, Lamantia was Emeritus Professor of Architecture at Tulane University in New Orleans. He was also a practicing architect, and an artist.

References:

"(A89) Statues Of The Dioscuri At The Quirinal." University of Chicago Library. http://speculum.lib.uchicago.edu/view.php?id=speculum-0089-001&title=(A89)%20Statues%20Of%20The%20Dioscuri%20At%20The%20Quirinal (24 August 2012).

"(A117) Statues Of The Dioscuri At The Quirinal." University of Chicago Library. http://speculum.lib.uchicago.edu/view.php?id=speculum-0117-001&title=(A117)%20Statues%20Of%20The%20Dioscuri%20At%20The%20Quirinal (24 August 2012).

"Antoine Lafréry." British Museum Collection Database. http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/search_the_collection_database/term_details.aspx?bioId=118308 (24 August 2012).

Bénézit, E. Dictionnaire critique et documentaire des Peintres, Sculpteurs, Dessinateurs et Graveurs. France: Librairie Gründ, 1966. Vol. 5, p. 355.

Bernini, Fabrizio. "La Fontana dei Dioscuri, il suggestivo belvedere del Quirinale." EZ Rome. 31 March 2011. http://www.ezrome.it/fontane/la-fontana-dei-dioscuri-il-suggestivo-belvedere-del-quirinale-2499.html (27 August 2012).

"Claudio Duchetti." British Museum Collection Database. http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/search_the_collection_database/term_details.aspx?bioId=92428 (24 August 2012).

Freeman, Charles. The Horses of St. Mark's: A Story of Triumph in Byzantium, Paris and Venice. Penguin, 2010. pp. 94-95. Online at Google Books: http://books.google.com/books?id=32yAlUZ0350C (27 August 2012).

"Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae." University of Chicago Library. http://speculum.lib.uchicago.edu/content/introduction.html (24 August 2012).

"Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae/ Opus Fidiae Opus Praxitelis." British Museum. http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/search_the_collection_database/search_object_details.aspx?objectid=3068124 (27 August 2012).

"Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae Roma nell’incisione del Cinquecento." Mandragora Publishing House. 2005-2012. http://www.mandragora.it/en/speculum-romanae-magnificentiaebrroma-nellincisione-del-cinquecento-en.html (24 August 2012).