The Josephs-Akademie pictured in one of the prints was founded in 1785 by Emperor Joseph II to raise the scientific level of surgical training in Central Europe. Until the mid 18th century, surgery had been more of a craft than a science.Carl (or Karl) Schütz and Johann Ziegler began their well-known series of large copperplate views of Vienna around the year 1780. The views were based on their watercolor paintings, and by 1799 were being published by the Viennese firm of Artaria & Company. The popular series remained in print in various compilations for at least fifty years thereafter, sometimes with re-engraving and new text applied to older plates to adapt them to the tastes of the time. Over time numerous new plates were added from beyond Vienna and its surroundings, including views from upper Austria, Salzburg, Tirol, the Steiermark, Hungary, Bohemia, Switzerland, Italy and the Rhine country.
Joseph and Peter Schaffer were Austrian draftsmen and engravers working in Vienna, as well as brothers and collaborators. Together they engraved views and genre scenes.
Condition: Generally very good with the usual light overall toning, wear, soft creases. Some with tape residue from former mounting in upper margins, easily matted out. Some with residue from former mounting on back.
Bénézit, E. Dictionnaire critique et documentaire des Peintres, Sculpteurs, Dessinateurs et Graveurs. France: Librairie Gründ, 1966. Vol. 7, pp. 557-558 (Schaffer); Vol. 8, p. 851 (Ziegler).
Koschatzky, Walter. “Die Meister der Wiener Vedute [The Masters of the Viennese Vedute].” Galerie Szaal. 2002. http://www.carlwenzelzajicek.com/htm/wiener_vedute.htm (25 July 2005).
Nimrichtr, Miroslav. “Artaria (Nebehay-Wagner 59).” Bastion Antikvariát & Galerie. 2004. http://www.antikvariat.tabor.cz/16text.htm (25 July 2005).
Schmidt, Gabriela. “Die Josephinische medicin-chirurgische Militair Academie.” Institut für Geschichte der Medizin, Universität Wien. http://www.uni-klu.ac.at/kultdoku/kataloge/25/html/2193.htm (25 July 2005).