Winfield Scott was born and educated in Virginia. He joined the army as a captain in 1808, and during the War of 1812 (1812-1815) was promoted to brigadier general and received the Congressional Gold Medal. He was appointed the Army’s commanding general in 1841 and served in that post for the next 20 years. Scott was a national hero after leading one of the two invading armies during the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) and serving as occupying military governor of Mexico City, and received a second Congressional Gold Medal. In 1852 the Whig Party nominated him as their presidential candidate. Although he lost to Franklin Pierce, he remained popular with the public and received a brevet promotion to lieutenant general. He was 74 years old and suffering from various ailments at the start of the American Civil War. Although he was a Virginian, in contrast to Robert E. Lee, Scott remained loyal to the Union and served as Abraham Lincoln’s principal military adviser at the beginning of the war. He conceived of a prolonged blockade of southern ports intended to cripple the South’s economy, and then send forces down the Mississippi Valley. Lincoln set aside the plan in favor of trying to quickly crush the rebellion, and George McClellan replaced the elderly general, who retired to West Point. Scott’s blockade strategy was eventually vindicated and became part of the Union’s successful defeat of the Confederacy.
The publication credits on this lithograph list two co-publishers: Kellogg, a prolific printer of the period much in the same genre as Currier and Ives, and George Whiting, with an address given as 87 Fulton Street, which is where Kellogg ran a New York office until around 1860. The Whitings and the Kelloggs evidently issued a number of prints together, including a portrait of Abraham Lincoln when he was running for president.
The Kelloggs were lithographers active in Hartford, Connecticut, New York City and Buffalo, New York. They produced an immense number of black-and-white and hand-colored lithographs during the 19th century, second only to their contemporaries and competitors Currier & Ives. The Connecticut Historical Society has almost 1,000 lithographs by the Kelloggs in their collection, including sentimental scenes, views of towns and buildings, portraits and historical scenes such as Civil War battles.
The Kellogg firm was founded by Daniel Wright Kellogg (1807-1874), who pioneered publishing inexpensive and popular lithographs in the United States under the name D.W. Kellogg & Co. in Hartford about 1833. Around 1843. he was joined by his brothers Edmund Burke Kellogg (1809-1872) and Elijah Chapman Kellogg (1811-1881), who began trading as E.B. and E.C. Kellogg. Edmund had a background as a journalist and editor and Elijah was trained as an engraver; he also was one of the first in the U.S. to breed trout artificially and wrote treatises on fish culture. Their firm was headquartered at 136 Main Street in Hartford until 1852. The Kelloggs also had offices in New York with Horace Thayer in (1846-47), J.G. Comstock (1849-52), and thereafter without partners until about 1860. Charles E. Kellogg, son of E.B., joined the business in 1860. In 1871, William Henry Bulkeley joined the firm and undertook a major reorganization of the business into a successful printing house called Kellogg & Bulkeley, specializing in colorful chromolithographs. The firm later merged with Case, Lockwood & Brainard to form Connecticut Printers in 1947.
The names of Frank P. Whiting and his father George Whiting also appear in the credits of some Kellogg prints. George Whiting became the Kelloggs’ principal New York agent in 1848 and worked for them until they closed their New York office in 1860. His name, abbreviated “G. Whiting,” appeared on Kellogg prints until 1862, when Whiting died and his son, Frank P. Whiting, took over as the Kelloggs’ co-publisher and distributor. Historian Nancy Finlay notes that the imprint “F.P. Whiting” appears on Kellogg prints issued between 1862 and 1866, which helps date those prints to that period (Finlay, p. 6).
Full publication information: E.B. & E.C. Kellogg, 245 Main St. Hartford, Ct. Geo. Whiting, 87 Fulton St. New York.
Condition: Generally very good, recently professionally cleaned and deacidified with light remaining toning and wear.
“Connecticut’s Currier & Ives: Lithographs by the Kellogg Brothers.” Connecticut Historical Society. 2002. http://www.chs.org/graphcoll/kelloggprint.htm (9 June 2004).
Finlay, Nancy (ed.) and Kate Steinway. Picturing Victorian America: Prints by the Kellogg Brothers of Hartford, Connecticut, 1830-1880. Hartford, CT: Connecticut Historical Society, 2010.
Finlay, Nancy. “Some Evidence for the Sale and Distribution of Kellogg Prints.” Ninth Annual Conference of the Program in Early American Economy and Society, Philadelphia, PA. 25 October 2010. p. 6. Online at http://www.librarycompany.org/Economics/2010Conference/papers/PEAES-VCP%20–%2010%20conf%20Finlay%20paper.pdf (11 September 2017).
“Kellogg Prints: Kellogg and Bulkeley.” Connecticut Historical Society. 2002. http://www.chs.org/graphcoll/kelloggprint4.htm (9 June 2004).
Peters, Harry T. America on Stone. U.S.: Doubleday, Doran, 1931. pp. 242-247.
“Report for 2001-2002.” Connecticut Historical Society. 2002. p. 13. Online at: http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:YwC3tSdReWIJ:www.chs.org/anreport.pdf+Forward+March+Old+hens+kellogg&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1 (28 June 2006).
“Winfield Scott.” Wikipedia. 27 August 2018. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winfield_Scott (30 August 2018).