Full titles: Gabbiano picchiettato volg’e: Moscatone/ Larus maculis Muscas referentibus variegates [Black Backed Gull] Plate DXXXIV
Sterna maggiore/ Sterna major [Common Tern, Sterna hirundo] Plate DXXXX
The natural history scholar S. Peter Dance has described how the plates are distinctly Italian in sensibility, portraying the birds with a touch of whimsy in keeping with the rococo taste of the period:
The production of Manetti’s five massive folio volumes must have been one of the most remarkable publishing ventures ever undertaken in Florence. Begun in 1767 and completed ten years later, it was larger, better engraved and more vividly coloured than any previous work on birds, but these are not its only claim to fame. The attitudes of the birds themselves give this book its unique character. Strutting, parading, posturing, and occasionally flying over its plate are birds whose real-life counterparts would surely disown them, and not without reason, for Manetti seems in these pictures to be depicting the human comedy, the habits and mannerisms of contemporary Italian society. Nonetheless his book may still be rated among the very greatest bird books.
Saviero (also spelled Xaviero) Manetti was a physician and naturalist. He was a graduate of the University of Pisa, member of the Royal Society and served as president of the Botanical Society of Florence, as well as being the director of the Florentine Botanical Garden from 1749 to 1782. Manetti edited and wrote the descriptions for the ambitious five-volume work of folio plates called Storia Naturale degli Uccelli (1767-76), commissioned by Maria Luisa, Grand Duchess of Tuscany, who had a passion for ornithology. In the text, Manetti asserted that all the birds were drawn from life or from firsthand study of their skins.
Lorenzo Lorenzi and Violante Vanni served as the artists and engravers, creating over 600 individual illustrations in a seven-year period. Lorenzi was also a Tuscan abbot. In addition to contributing plates to Manetti’s Storia Naturale degli Uccelli, he made engravings after Annibale Caracci, Giovanni Manozzi and other artists. Vanni worked as an engraver in her native Florence in the mid 18th century, an unusual occupation for a woman of that era. A student of the British artist Robert Strange, she engraved religious subjects and portraits, as well as contributing both artwork and engravings to Manetti’s Storia Naturale degli Uccelli.
Condition: Generally very good with the usual overall light toning and wear.
Bénézit, E. Dictionnaire critique et documentaire des Peintres, Sculpteurs, Dessinateurs et Graveurs. France: Librairie Gründ, 1966. Vol. 5, p. 637 (Lorenzi), Vol. 8, p. 471 (Vanni).
Dance, S. Peter. The Art of Natural History: Animal Illustrators and their Work. London : 1978, p. 70.
Sitwell, Sacheverell. Great Flower Books, 1700-1900. New York: The Atlantic Monthly Press, 1990. p. 92.
Nissen, Claus. Die Illustrierten Vogelbucher: ihre Geschichte und Bibliographie. Stuttgart:1976. 588.
“Lorenzo Lorenzi: Gallo Commune…” Vatican Library Collection. 2002. http://www.vedo.com/store/item.asp?DEPARTMENT_ID=17&ITEM_ID=2966 (2 May 2005).
Wood, Casey A. (ed.) An Introduction to the Literature of Vertebrate Zoology Based Chiefly on the Titles in the Blacker Library of Zoology, the Emma Shearer Wood Library of Ornithology, the Bibliotheca Osleriana, and Other Libraries of McGill University, Montreal. London: Humphry Milford, Oxford University Press, 1931. p. 450.
Zimmer, John Todd. Catalogue of the Edward E. Ayer Ornithological Library. Zoological Series, Publ. 239-240, Vol. 16. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1926. p. 241.