Celestial and Astronomy Charts
Homann and Doppelmayr: Mid 18th Century
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Johann Baptist Homann (1664-1724) (cartographer)
Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr (1677-1750) (astronomer)
Celestial and Astronomical Charts
from Atlas Coelestis in quo Mundus Spectabilis
Johann Baptist Homann [Homann Heirs], Nuremberg: 1742 [or revised edition 1748]
Hand-colored engravings
20 x 24 inches, average approximate overall
Prices Vary

Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr and Johann Baptist Homann were frequent collaborators in producing celestial and astronomical charts for atlases published by Homann and issued under various titles.The major two compilations of Dopplemayr’s works were published by Homann Heirs: Atlas Coelestis in quo Mundus Spectabilis et in Eodem Stellarum Omnium Phoenomena Notabilia, issued as 30 plates in 1742, and the revised edition of this work Atlas Novus Coelestis, in quo Mundus Spectabilis, et in Eodem tam Errantium quam Inerrantium Stellarum Phoenomena Notabilia, issued in 1748. (See the frontispiece of this work.)

The 30 standard charts and diagrams from the above 1742 and 1748 editions have a complicated publishing history, much of which has been deciphered and documented by the contemporary Dutch scholar Robert H. van Gent (see reference below). For example, some of these charts had appeared in earlier Homann editions such as his first atlas, the Neuer Atlas(Nuremberg: 1707). They also variously appeared in Atlas von Hundert Charten (Nuremberg: 1712), Grossen Atlas(Nuremberg: 1716), andAtlas Portatilis Coelestis (Nuremberg: 1723). Homann also issued geographical maps in various atlases that may have included celestial plates (particularly composite atlases), and Homann and his heirs presumably sold separately issued maps.

In addition to these 30 standard Doppelmayr/Homann charts and diagrams from the above editions, van Gent identifies six additional ones (which he names Addenda 1 through 6) that were variously issued in the above atlases, or separately issued, namely Addendum 1, Neu invertirte Geographische Universal (clock); Addendum 2, Planisphærium Cæleste (double hemisphere celestial chart), Addendum 3, Sphaerarum Artificialium Typica Repraesentatio (globes and armillary sphere) and Addendum 4, Die verfinsterte Erdkuge (solar eclipse, which appeared first in the 1748 edition).

Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr, a professor of mathematics at the Aegidien Gymnasium at Nuremberg, was an acclaimed German geographer and astronomer who wrote on astronomy, geography, cartography, trigonometry, sundials and mathematical instruments. He was also involved in the production of globes as part of a larger goal to bring the scientific ideas of the Enlightenment to a broader public. In service of that idea, Doppelmayr translated several works into German including Nicholas Bion’s 1699 work L’usage des Globes Célestes et Terrestes, et des Sphères [The Usage of Celestial and Terrestrial Globes and of Spheres]. Doppelmayr was elected to several scientific societies, including the Berlin Academy of Sciences, the Royal Society and the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences.

Johann Baptist Homann, a former Dominican monk, became a celebrated cartographer of 18th century Nuremberg, Germany, producing maps and celestial charts (generally in atlases), and globes of high quality both in their geographic accuracy and aesthetic appeal. According to map expert R.V. Tooley: "The most important and prolific map-makers in Germany in the 18th century were the Homann family (1702-1813). The founder and principal member was Johann Baptist Homann. He set up his headquarters in Nuremberg and quickly dominated the German market. Nor did he confine his efforts to his homeland, but produced general atlases covering the whole world."

After settling in Nuremberg in 1688, Johann Baptist Homann was employed as a map engraver before founding his own firm in 1702. Homann’s geographical, celestial, and astronomical maps were published in a variety of states throughout the 18th century, which are generally difficult to distinguish from one another. Most of his geographical maps first appeared in Neuer Atlas…über die Gantze Welt [New Atlas of the Whole World] (c. 1712-1730), also known in Latin as Atlas Novus) and Grosser Atlas ueber die ganze Welt [Grand Atlas of all the World] (c. 1716). His celestial maps, produced in collaboration with Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr, were issued as part of various publications before being published as a collection posthumously by his heirs, most notably as Atlas Coelestis in quo Mundus Spectabilis et in Eodem Stellarum Omnium Phoenomena Notabilia, issued as 30 plates in 1742, with a revised edition in 1748.

Homann’s geographical maps were frequently republished by the Homann heirs throughout the 18th century, most notably in Atlas Geographicus Maior (c. 1780) and Atlas Homannianus (Amsterdam, 1731-1796). Homann was initially succeeded by his son, Johann Christoph Homann (1703-1730), then by his friend Johann Michael Franz (1700-1761) and stepsister’s husband Johann Georg Ebersberger (1695-1760). The company continued operations under different names until 1848.

Condition: Each generally very good with the usual overall light toning, wear, handling, soft creases, printer's creases. Some with slight irregularities to margin edges. Some with short marginal tears or chips professionally restored. Most with center vertical fold as issued, professionally flattened. Most professionally deacidified. Additional condition issues, if any, noted above.

References:

Dekker, Elly, et al. Globes at Greenwich: A Catalogue of the Globes and Armillary Spheres in the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich. London: Oxford University Press and the National Maritime Museum, 1999. p. 327.

Tooley, R.V., Maps and Map-Makers.New York: Bonanza Books, 1949. p. 27.

van Gent, Robert H. "The Atlas Coelestis (1742) of Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr." Web Pages on the History of Astronomy by Robert Harry van Gent. http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/doppelmayr/doppelmayr.htm (3 November 2015).

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2 System Solare Et Planetarium ex hypothesi Copernicana secundum elegantissimas Illustrissimi quondam Hugenii deductiones novissime collectum & exhibitum Solar System and Planetarium according to the Copernican hypothesis, following the very fine deductions lately collected and presented by the illustrious Huygens Solar System (Pl. 2) Plate 2 This planetary diagram shows the solar system and constellations in the zodiac in the context of the solar eclipse of May 12, 1706 across Europe and northern Asia. The depiction is based on the Cosmotheoros of Christiaan Huygens. In the center, planetary paths from earth and inner planets to Jupiter and Saturn are shown in a sunburst, all within a concentric ring of Baroque pictorial representations of each of the 12 signs of the zodiac. Among the scientific and decorative images in the four corner spandrels of the chart are the trajectory of the planets; a schematic diagram of the eclipse formation; the sun; Urania, Greek muse of astronomy; star-gazing cherubs; and cloud formations. According to scholar Robert H. van Gent, this chart was plate was first published in 1707 in Homann's Neuer Atlas (1707) and reprinted in 1712 and 1716. It was also published in the 1742 and 1748 editions.

Full title in ribbon: System Solare et Planetarium ex hypothesi Copernicana secundum elegantissimas Illustrissimi quondam Hugenii deductiones novissime collectum & exhibitum à Iohanne Bapt. Homanno Noriberge.

Shown in Dekker, Elly and van der Krogt, Peter. Globes from the Western World. London: Zwemmer, 1993. p. 88, fig. 46.
19.25 x 22.75 inches, plate mark; 21 x 24.5 inches, overall $3,500 plate2.jpg plate2-2.jpg
5 Phaenomena in Planetis Primariis Quae facies diversas, ex illorum phasibus, maculis et fasciis seu zonis ortas sistunt... Phenomena in Planets diverse in shape...markings and streaks or zones that arise... Planetary Phenomena (Pl. 5) Plate 5 Planetary chart illustrating the phases of the planets as viewed from the earth. It also depicts the aspects of Saturn's rings, and markings of the planets Venus, Mars, and Jupiter as observed by various astronomers, including Galileo, Christoph Scheiner, Franciscus Fontana, Christiaan Huygens, Robert Hooke, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, Jacques-Philippe Maraldi, John Hadley and Francesco Bianchi. 20 x 23 inches, plate mark; 21.25 x 24.25 inches, overall $1,800 plate5.jpg plate5-2.jpg
8 Ephemerides Motuum Coelestium Geometricae In quibus secundum Hypothesin Copernicanam omnia Motuum Planetariorum irregularium Phaenomena h.e. Directiones, Stationes et Retrogradationes praecipue ad ań. Chr. 1708 et 1709, ut et eorum causae curiose ad oculum... Ephemeris of Geometric Celestial Motion: In order to make visually clear that which according to the Copernican Hypothesis all Planetary Motion is Irregular Phenomena, that is, Directions, Stations, and Retrogradations, Principally in the Years of 1708 and 1709 A.D... Celestial Motion (Pl. 8) Plate 8 Geometrical celestial chart depicting a number of astronomical representations and diagrams of planetary motions calculated for the years 1708 and 1709. A vividly colored inset allegorical illustration lower right shows Ceres riding on a globe surrounded by cherubs in the clouds with various objects: an hourglass, a scythe, a torch, a caduceus, a sword and armor. According to historian of astronomy Robert H. van Gent, this chart was originally published in 1712 and reprinted in 1716. It was also published in the 1742 and 1748 editions. 19 x 23 inches plate mark; 20.5 x 24 inches, overall $1,200 plate8.jpg plate8-2.jpg
11 Tabula Selenographica in qual Lunarium Macularum exacta Descriptio secundum Nomenclaturam Praestantissimorum Astronomorum tam HEVELII quam RICCIOLI Curiosis Rei Sidereae Cultoribus exhibentur Lunar Chart with Lunar Markings Examined and Described Carefully Following the Same Astronomical Nomenclature of Works Produced by Hevelius and Riccioli Lunar Chart (Pl. 11) Plate 11 Two alternative maps of the moon, appearing in double hemisphere format according to the competing systems of nomenclature devised by Polish astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687) (left) and Giovanni Baptista Riccioli (1598-1671) (right). Hevelius published his lunar atlas in 1647 and chose names for lunar features after geographic entities on earth. In contrast, in Riccioli's 1651 lunar map he preferred to name them after scholars and scientists. Over the next 150 years, each system had its proponents. Accordingly, cartographers — including Homann — often showed both rather than choose between them. Eventually Riccioli's nomenclature supplanted that of Hevelius and is still used today. According to scholar Robert H. van Gent, this chart was plate was first published in 1707 in Homann's Neuer Atlas (1707) and reprinted in 1712 and 1716. It was also published in the 1742 and 1748 editions. 20 x 23 inches, plate mark; 20.75 x 24.25 inches, overall 0 plate11.jpg plate11-2.jpg
16 Hemisphaerium Coeli Boreale in quo loca Stellarum fixarum secundum Æquatorem, per Ascensiones nempe rectas et Declinationes ad annum Christi 1730 completum sistuntur Hemisphere of the Northern Firmament in which the fixed stars are laid out with respect to the equator according to their right ascensions and declinations for the end of the Christian year 1730 Northern Hemisphere (Pl. 16) Plate 16 One of a pair of celestial charts, showing constellations of the northern hemisphere (Boreale) and the southern hemisphere (Australe) respectively. In each print, the constellation figures are illustrated in a circle as traditional classical mythological and scientific instrument forms, engraved in the Baroque style. In the corner spandrels of each chart are depictions of winged cherubs holding astronomical instruments, against a backdrop of clouds. To the left and right of each plate are tables giving the declinations of the stars in each constellation from the celestial equator for the year 1730. The plates were engraved between 1716 and 1724. They were also published in the 1742 and 1748 editions. 19 x 22.75 inches, ruled border; 21 x 24.25 inches, overall Offered as a pair with Hemisphaerium Coeli Australe, Plate 17, $7,500 the pair plate16.jpg plate16-2.jpg
17 Hemisphaerium Coeli Australe in quo loca Stellarum fixarum secundum Æquatorem, per Ascensiones nempe rectas et Declinationes ad annum Christi 1730 completum sistuntur Hemisphere of the Southern Firmament in which the fixed stars are laid out with respect to the equator according to their right ascensions and declinations for the end of the Christian year 1730 Southern Hemisphere (Pl. 17) Plate 17 One of a pair of celestial charts, showing constellations of the northern hemisphere (Boreale) and the southern hemisphere (Australe) respectively. In each print, the constellation figures are illustrated in a circle as traditional classical mythological and scientific instrument forms, engraved in the Baroque style. In the corner spandrels of each chart are depictions of winged cherubs holding astronomical instruments, against a backdrop of clouds. To the left and right of each plate are tables giving the declinations of the stars in each constellation from the celestial equator for the year 1730. The plates were engraved between 1716 and 1724. They were also published in the 1742 and 1748 editions. 19 x 22.5 inches, ruled border; 20 x 23.25 inches, overall Offered as a pair with Hemisphaerium Coeli Boreale, Plate 16, $7,500 the pair plate17.jpg plate17-2.jpg
18 Hemisphaerium Coeli Boreale in quo Fixarum loca secundum Eclipticae ductum ad anum 1730 completum exhibentur... Hemisphere of the Northern Firmament and the ecliptic in which the fixed stars are laid out for the year 1730 after the catalogue of Johannes Hevelius Northern Hemisphere (Pl. 18) Plate 18 Pair of celestial charts, showing constellations of the northern hemisphere (Boreale) and the southern hemisphere (Australe) respectively for the year 1730, based on the catalogue of Johannes Hevelius. In each print, the constellation figures are illustrated as traditional classical mythological and scientific instrument forms and engraved in the Baroque style. In the corner spandrels of each chart are detailed illustrations of various European astronomical observatories, with brief explanatory captions giving their names, locations and founding dates. In the northern hemisphere view, these are, clockwise from upper left, the Uraniborg observatory of Tycho Brahe on the Danish island of Ven (founded 1576), the Paris observatory built during the reign of Louis XIV (1667), the observatory of Georg Christoph Eimmart in Nuremberg (1678), and that of Johannes Hevelius in Danzig (c.1650). In the southern hemisphere view, these are respectively, clockwise from upper left, the observatories at Greenwich (founded 1666), Copenhagen (1642), Berlin (1711) and Kassel (1714). To the left and right of each plate are tables with information about the number and magnitudes of stars in each constellation. The plates were engraved between 1716 and 1724. These two plates were also published in the 1742 and 1748 editions. 19 x 22.75 inches, ruled border;21.25 x 24.25 inches, overall Offered as a pair with Hemisphaerium Coeli Australe, Plate 19, $9,000 the pair plate18.jpg plate18-2.jpg
19 Hemisphaerium Coeli Australe in quo Fixarum loca secundum Eclipticae ductum ad anum 1730 completum exhibentur... Hemisphere of the Southern Firmament and the ecliptic in which the fixed stars are laid out for the year 1730 after the catalogue of Johannes Hevelius Southern Hemisphere (Pl. 19) Plate 19 Pair of celestial charts, showing constellations of the northern hemisphere (Boreale) and the southern hemisphere (Australe) respectively for the year 1730, based on the catalogue of Johannes Hevelius. In each print, the constellation figures are illustrated as traditional classical mythological and scientific instrument forms and engraved in the Baroque style. In the corner spandrels of each chart are detailed illustrations of various European astronomical observatories, with brief explanatory captions giving their names, locations and founding dates. In the northern hemisphere view, these are, clockwise from upper left, the Uraniborg observatory of Tycho Brahe on the Danish island of Ven (founded 1576), the Paris observatory built during the reign of Louis XIV (1667), the observatory of Georg Christoph Eimmart in Nuremberg (1678), and that of Johannes Hevelius in Danzig (c.1650). In the southern hemisphere view, these are respectively, clockwise from upper left, the observatories at Greenwich (founded 1666), Copenhagen (1642), Berlin (1711) and Kassel (1714). To the left and right of each plate are tables with information about the number and magnitudes of stars in each constellation. The plates were engraved between 1716 and 1724. These two plates were also published in the 1742 and 1748 editions. 19 x 22.25 inches, ruled border; 21.25 x 24 inches, overall Offered as a pair with Hemisphaerium Coeli Boreale, Plate 18, $9,000 the pair plate19.jpg plate19-2.jpg
31 Iohann Baptistae Homanns...neulich erfundene Geographische Universal — Zeig Und Schlag-Uhr Johann Baptist Homann's Newly Created Universal Geographical Striking Clock Universal Clock (Add. 1) van Gent Addendum 1 Various mechanical devices or models combining a clock with a model of the world or the cosmos were created in the 18th century. This print shows a clock built by "deservedly renowned" clockmaker Zacharias Landteck in Nuremberg to show the time in different parts of the world. At the center of the dial is a polar projection of the northern hemisphere according to the geography of the day — including "Compagnies Land" in the North Pacific (the Kurile Islands, believed until the 1790s to be a large land mass northeast of Japan) and California is shown as an island. There is text in the margin explaining in German and Dutch explaining the operation of the clock. It is divided into time zones by hours and seasons, represented by the zodiac signs. Another dial representing the heavens rotates slowly around the central dial representing the earth. A plate of glass, partially darkened, fits over the central dial and also rotates to represent night and day. The text also notes that the clock was available to be viewed for demonstration at Landteck's workshop. 19.5 x 23 inches, platemark; 20.75 x 24.25 inches, overall $2,100 vgadd1.jpg vgadd1-2.jpg
32 Planispaerium Caeleste Celestial Planisphere Celestial Planisphere (Add. 2) van Gent Addendum 2 A double hemisphere celestial chart, showing constellations of the northern and southern hemispheres depicted as allegorical figures, animals and scientific instruments. The stars are shown in six degrees of magnitude according to a key in the center between the hemispheres. The selection and style of the constellations followed that of Firmamentum Sociescianum sive Uranographia (1687) by the Polish astronomer Johannes Hevelius, whose name is noted in the subtitle of the chart. The subtitle further indicates that the chart also draws on the work of Edmund Halley, the British astronomer for whom Halley's Comet is named. There are numerous variants of this chart published in Germany in the 18th century; this example, Planispaerium Caeleste by Homann, bears the name of the firm (Officina Homanniana) under the border in the lower margin, together with the name of Georg Christoph Eimmart (1638-1705), a Nuremberg astronomer.

The outer borders of the chart are decorated with six inset diagrams against a background of clouds including the planetary models of Tycho Brahe, Ptolemy, and Copernicus. The other 3 diagrams show the illumination of the moon by the sun, the revolution of the earth around the sun, and the effect of the moon on tides.

See full description and details.
19.5 x 22.5 inches, plate mark; 21.75 x 25 inches, overall $5,500 vgadd2.jpg vgadd2-2.jpg
33 Sphaerarum Artificialium Typica Repraesentatio Model Spheres, Representative Types Model Spheres (Add. 3) van Gent Addendum 3 An illustration of a pair of terrestrial and celestial globes on either side of a Ptolemaic armillary sphere, all on Baroque stands. The terrestrial globe shows Asia, Europe and Africa with simple cartography, the celestial shows various constellations with figures according to Greek mythology. The armillary sphere has a central earth called “Terra,” within horizon, and meridian, the central bands including zodiac, equator, Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, and polar circles. Each of the Baroque stands incorporates caryatid elements in the supports, together with other classical ornamentation. This print was first published in 1712 in Homann’s Atlas von hundert Charten. It was very popular and subsequently republished thoughout the 18th century.

There are three known variants of the title bar for this print, which is set in a rectangular ruled border in the top margin. Each variant bears the title Sphaerarum Artificialium Typica Repraesentatio, but in a different typeface and font size. One of the variants also has the inscription below the title specifically identifying it as by Homann: "novissime adumbrate a Johanne Baptista Homanno Noribergae." A third variant has the above inscription, and below that also is inscribed "Cum Privilegio Sac. Coes. Majestatis." All of these variants are considered to be issued by Homann or the Homann Heirs.

Cartographer Georg Matthaus Seutter issued yet another variant of this print in his Atlas Novus in the mid 18th century. The Seutter version has the title in a ribbon banner with Seutter's name. The globes and armillary are set on a checkerboard-patterned surface rather than the simple plane in the Homann example. (See Seutter’s version.)
dimensions $3,200 vgadd3.jpg vgadd3-2.jpg